Dr. John Dunlop

Guest Scientist
Biomimetic Actuation and Tissue Growth
+49 331 567-9402

Main Focus

Mechanics of Actuating Systems

• Modelling mechanics of actuating plant systems
• Designing novel materials-actuation systems

Modelling of Tissue Growth

• Interaction between mechanics and cell action in trabecular bone
• Effect of geometry on tissue growth

Mechanics of Cellular Materials

• Stability of porous solids
• Effect of underlying architecture on deformation localisation

Curriculum Vitae

Academic Qualifications
Bachelor of Science (1st Class Honours) majoring in Chemistry
Bachelor of Engineering (1st Class Honours) majoring in Materials Engineering
University of Western Australia (Perth, Australia)

Doctorate in Materials Science. Thesis: Internal variable modelling of creep and recrystallisation in zirconium alloys
Institut National Polytechnique de Grenoble, Laboratoire Thermodynamique et de Physico-chimie des Matériaux. Grenoble (France)

Habilitation in Biological Physics. Thesis: The physics of shape change in biology
Potsdam University (Potsdam, Germany).

Academic Career
Since 02/2006     
Postdoctoral Scientist
Department of Biomaterials, Max Planck Institute of Colloid and Interfaces, Potsdam (Germany)
Alexander von Humboldt Fellow
Since 11/2008
Research Group Leader
Department of Biomaterials, Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces

Publication List

Edited Book

  • Fratzl, P., Dunlop J. W. C., and Weinkamer, R. (eds), Materials Design Inspired by Nature, RSC Publishing, 2013. 

Book Chapters

  • Burgert, I. and Dunlop, J. W. C., Micromechanics of Cell Walls, 2011, in Plant Cells and Plants, P. Wotjasek (ed)Signalling and Communication in Plants, 9, 27-52.
  • Guiducci, L., Dunlop, J. W. C., and Fratzl, P., An introduction to the physics of self-folding thin structures, 2016, in On Folding. Towards a New Field of Interdisciplinary Research, Friedman, M. ,and Schäffner, W. (eds), Transcript Verlag, Bielefeld, 175-210.

Review Articles

  • Weinkamer, R., Dunlop, J. W. C., Bréchet, Y. J. M., Fratzl. P., All but diamonds – biological materials are not foreverActa Materialia, 2013, 61 ,880-889.
  • Eder, M., Arnould, O., Dunlop, J. W. C.,  Hornatowska, J., Salmén, L., Experimental micromechanical characterization of wood cell wallsWood Science and Technology. 2013, 47, 163-182.
  • Dunlop, J. W. C., Fratzl, P., Multilevel Architectures in Natural MaterialsScripta Materiala, 2013. 68, 8 -12.
  • Dunlop, J. W. C., Weinkamer, R., Fratzl, P., Artful interfaces within biological materialsMaterials Today, 2011, 14, 70-78. (Republished in conference proceedings of Actas del IX Congresso Nacional de Materiales Compuestos, Girona, Spain 5-8 July 2011)
  • Kollmannsberger, P., Bidan, C. M., Dunlop, J. W. C., Fratzl, P. The physics of tissue patterning and extracellular matrix organisation: How cells join forces, Soft Matter, 2011, 7, 9549-9560.
  • Dunlop. J. W. C. and Fratzl, P., Biological CompositesAnnual Review of Materials Research, 2010, 40, 1-24


  • Dunlop, J. W. C., Frazl, P., Bioinspired composites: Making a tooth mimic, Nature Materials, 2015, 14, 1082-1083 (Invited News and Views Article)

Full Articles


  • Werner, M., Blanquer, S. B. G., Haimi, S. P., Korus, G., Dunlop, J. W.C., Duda, G. N., Grijpma, D. W., Petersen, A. Surface Curvature Differentially Regulates Stem Cell Migration and Differentiation via Altered Attachment Morphology and Nuclear Deformation, Advanced Science, 2017, 4, 1600347.
  • Lin, H., Gong, J., Eder, M., Schuetz R., Peng, H., Dunlop, J. W. C., Yuan, J., Programmable actuation of porous poly(ionic liquid) membranes by aligned carbon nanotubes, Advanced Materials Interfaces, 2017, 4, 1600768.
  • Zhukova, Y., Ulasevich, S. A., Dunlop, J. W. C., Fratzl, P., Möhwald, H., Skorb, K., Mesoporous titania surfaces for biological applications, Ultrasonic - Sonochemistry, 2017, 36, 146-154.
  • Albéric, M., Wagermaier, W., Gourrier, A., Staude, A., Dunlop, J. W. C., Dean, M. N., Fratzl, P., Reiche, I., Relation between the macroscopic pattern of elephant ivory and its three-dimensional micro-tubular network, PLoS ONE, 2017, 12, e0166671.
  • Gong, J., Lin, H., Dunlop, J. W. C., Yuan, J., Hierarchically arranged helical fiber actuators derived from commercial clothAdvanced Materials, 2017, 1605103. DOI: 10.1002/adma.201605103.
  • Zhukova, Y., Hiepen, C., Knaus, P., Osterland, M., Prohaska, S., Dunlop, J. W. C., Fratzl, P., Skorb, E. V., The role of surface nanotopography on preosteoblast morphology, adhesion and migrationAdvanced Healthcare Materials, 2017, 1601244. DOI: 10.1002/adhm.201601244.
  • Jayasankar, A, Seidel, R., Guiducci, L., Hosny, A.S.F., Fratzl, P., Weaver, J. C., Dunlop, J. W.C., Dean, M.N., Mechanical behavior of idealized, stingray-skeleton-inspired tiled composites as a function of geometry and material propertiesJournal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, 2017, DOI: 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2017.02.028.
  • Lin, H., Gong, J., Miao, H., Guterman, R., Song, H., Zhao, Q., Dunlop, J. W. C., Yuan, J., Flexible and Actuating Nanoporous Poly(ionic liquids)-paper based Hybrid Membranes. ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, 2017, DOI: 10.1021/acsami.7b02920.
  • Ukmar-Godec, T., Bertinetti, L., Dunlop, J. W.C., Godec, A., Grabiger, M. A., Masic, A., Nguyen, H., Zlotnikov, I., Zaslansky, P., Faivre, D., Materials nanoarchitecturing via cation-mediated protein assembly: making limpet teeth without mineral, Advanced Materials, 2017. DOI: 10.1002/adma.201701171.
  • Ehrig, S., Ferracci, J., Weinkamer, R., Dunlop, J. W.C., Curvature controlled defect dynamics in active systems. Accepted in PRE 2017


  • Kopf, J., Ulasevich, S., Baidukova, O., Zhukova, Y., Dunlop, J. W. C., Fratzl, P., Rikeit, P., Knaus, P., Poznyak, S. K., Andreeva, D. V., and Skorb, E. V., Ultrasonically Produced Porous Sponge Layer on Titanium to Guide Cell Behavior. Advanced Engineering Materials, 2016, 18, 476–483.
  • Bidan, C. M., Kollmannsberger, P., Gering, V., Ehrig, S., Joly, P., Petersen, A., Vogel, V., Fratzl, P., Dunlop, J. W.C., Gradual conversion of cellular stress patterns into pre-stressed matrix architecture during in vitro tissue growth. Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 2016, 13, 20160136.
  • Stoychev, G., Guiducci, L., Turcaud, S., Dunlop, J. W. C., and Ionov, L., Hole-programmed superfast multistep actuation of polymer bilayers, Advanced Functional Materials,  2016, 26, 7733-7739.
  • Guiducci, L., Razghandi, K., Turcaud, S., Bertinetti, L., Rüggeberg, M., Weaver, J., Fratzl, P., Burgert, I., and Dunlop, J. W. C., Honeycomb actuators inspired by unfolding of ice-plant seed capsulesPLoS ONE, 2016, 11, e0163506.


  • Habegger, M.L, Dean M.N, Dunlop, J. W. C., Mullins, G, Stokes, M, Huber, D.R, Winters, D and Motta, P.J, Feeding in billfishes: inferring the role of the rostrum from a biomechanical standpointJournal of Experimental Biology, 2015, 218, 824-836.
  • Zhao, Q., Heyda, J., Dzubiella, J., Täuber, T., Dunlop, J. W. C. Yuan, J., Porous poly(ionic liquid) actuator with ultra-high sensitivity to solventsAdvanced Materials, 2015, 27, 2913-2917.
  • Fischer, F. D., Zickler, G., Dunlop, J. W. C., Fratzl, P. Tissue growth controlled by geometric boundary conditions: a simple model recapitulating aspects of callus formation and bone healingJournal of the Royal Society Interface, 2015, 12, 20150108.
  • Herklotz, M., Prewitz, M. C., Bidan, C. M., Drichel, J., Scharnetzki, D., Dunlop, J. W. C., Fratzl, P., Werner, C., Availability of extracellular matrix biopolymers determines space-filling growth of human mesenchymal stem cells in vitroBiomaterials, 2015, 60, 121-129.
  • Guiducci, L., Weaver, J. C., Bréchet, Y. J. M., Fratzl, P., Dunlop, J. W. C., The Geometric Design and Fabrication of Actuating Cellular Structures, Advanced Materials Interfaces, 2015, 2, 1500011.


  • Zhao, Q., Dunlop, J. W. C., Qiu, X., Huang, F., Zhang, Z., Heyda, J., Dzubiella, J., Antonietti, M., and Yuan, J., An instant multi-responsive porous polymer actuator operating via solvent molecule sorptionNature Communications, 2014, 5, 4293. 
  • Razghandi, K., Bertinetti, L., Guiducci, L., Dunlop, J. W. C., Neinhuis, C., Fratzl P. Burgert, I., Hydro-actuation of ice plant seed capsules powered by water uptakeBioinspired, Biomimetic and Nanobiomaterials, 2014, 3, 169-182. 
  • Guiducci, L., Fratzl, P., Bréchet, Y. J. M., Dunlop, J. W. C., Pressurized honeycomb as soft-actuators: a theoretical studyJournal of the Royal Society Interface, 2014, 11: 20140458. 
  • Bennet, M., McCarthy, A., Fix, D., Edwards, M. R., Repp, F., Vach, P., Dunlop, J. W. C., Sitti, M., Buller, G. S., Klumpp, S., Faivre, D., Influence of Magnetic Fields on Magneto-AerotaxisPLoS One, 2014, 9(7), e101150. 


  • Bidan C.M., Kommareddy K.P., Rumpler M., Kollmannsberger P., Fratzl P., Dunlop J.W.C. Geometry as a factor for tissue growth: Towards shape optimization of tissue engineering scaffolds, Advanced HealthCare Materials, 2013, 2, 186-194.
  • Tamjid, E., Simchi, A., Dunlop, J. W. C., Fratzl, P., Bagheri, R., Vossoughi, M., Tissue growth into three-dimensional composite scaffolds with controlled micro-features and nanotopographical surfacesJournal of Biomedical Materials Research A, 2013, 101, 2796-2807.
  • Stoychev, G., Turcaud, S., Dunlop, J. W. C., Ionov, L., Hierarchical multi-step folding of polymer bilayers, Advanced Functional Materials, 2013, 23, 2295-2300.
  • Gamsjäger, E., Bidan, C. M., Fischer, F.D., Fratzl P., Dunlop, J.W.C., Modelling the role of surface stress on the kinetics of tissue growth in confined geometries, Acta Biomaterialia, 2013, 9, 5531-5543.
  • Bidan, C, M., Wang, F. M., Dunlop, J. W. C., A three dimensional model for tissue deposition on complex surfacesComputer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering, 2013, 16, 1056-1070.
  • Gupta, H. S., Krauß, S., Kerschnitzki, M., Karunaratne, A., Dunlop, J. W. C., Barber, A. H., Boesecke, P., Funari, S. S. Fratzl, P., Intrafibrillar plasticity through mineral/collagen sliding is the dominant mechanism for the extreme toughness of antler boneJournal of Mechanical Behaviour of Biomedical Materials, 2013. 28, 366-382.
  • Galvis, L, Masic, A., Dunlop, J. W. C., Duda, G. and Peter Fratzl– Theoretical and experimental study of polarized Raman anisotropic response of collagen amide I band in tendonPLoS ONE 2013, 8(5): e63518


  • Rusconi, M., Valleriani, A., Dunlop, J. W. C., Kurths, J., Weinkamer, R., Quantitative approach to the stochastics of bone remodelling EPL, 2012. 97, 28009.
  • Abraham, Y., Tamburu, C., Klein, E., Dunlop, J. W. C., Fratzl, P., Raviv, U., Elbaum, R., Tilted cellulose arrangement as a novel mechanism for hygroscopic coiling in the stork's bill awnJournal of the Royal Society Interface, 2012, 9, 640-647.
  • Vermolen, F. J., Gefen, A., and Dunlop, J. W. C., Modeling of in–vitro ’wound’ healing: some models and experimental validationAdvanced Biomaterials, 2012, 14, B76-B88.
  • Bidan C.M., Kommareddy K.P., Rumpler M., Kollmannsberger P., Bréchet Y., Fratzl P., Dunlop J.W.C., How Linear Tension Converts to Curvature: Geometric Control of Bone Tissue Growth, PLoS ONE, 2012, 7(5): e36336.
  • Stoychev, G., Zakharchenko, S., Turcaud, S., Dunlop, J. W. C., Ionov, L., Shape programmed folding of stimuli-responsive polymer bilayersACS Nano, 2012, 6, 3925-2934.
  • Zickler, G. A., Ruffoni, D., Dunlop, J. W. C., Elbaum, R., Weinkamer, R., Fratzl, P., Antretter, T., Finite element modeling of the cyclic wetting mechanism in the active part of wheat awns,  Biointerphases, 2012, 7:42, DOI/ 10.1007/s13758-012-0042-x.
  • Seto, J., Busse, B., Gupta, H. S., Schäfer, C., Krauss, S., Dunlop, J. W. C., Masic, A., Kerschnitzki, M., Zaslansky, P.,Boesecke, P.,Catalá-Lehnen, P., Schinke, T., Fratzl, P., Jahnen-Dechent, W.  Accelerated growth plate mineralization and foreshortened proximal limb bones in Fetuin-A knockout micePLoS ONE, 2012, 7(10): e47338.


  • Hartmann, M., Dunlop, J. W. C., Fratzl, P., Bréchet, Y., Weinkamer, R., Trabecular bone remodelling simulated by a stochastic exchange of discrete bone packets from the surfaceJournal of Mechanical Behaviour of Biomedical Materials, 2011, 4, 879-887.
  • Hoo, R.-P., Fratzl, P., Daniels, J., Dunlop, J. W. C., Honkimäki, V., Hoffman, M., Cooperation of length scales and orientations in the deformation of bovine bone, Acta Biomaterialia, 2011, 7, 2943-2951.
  • Harrington, M. J., Razghandi, K., Ditsch, F., Guiducci, L., Rueggeberg, M., Dunlop J. W. C., Fratzl, P., Neinhuis, C., and Burgert, I., Origami-like unfolding of hydro-actuated ice plant seed capsules, Nature Communications, 2011, 2, 337.
  • Shahar, R., Lukas, C., Papo, S., Dunlop, J. W. C., Weinkamer, R., Characterization of the spatial arrangement of secondary osteons in the diaphysis of equine and canine long bonesAnatomical Record, 2011, 294, 1093-1102. 
  • Turcaud, S., Guiducci, L., Fratzl, P., Y. J. M., Bréchet, Dunlop, J. W. C., An excursion into the design space of biomimetic architectured biphasic actuatorsInternational Journal of Materials Research, 2011, 6, 607-612.
  • Masic, A., Bertinetti, L., Schuetz, R., Galvis, L., Timofeeva, N., Dunlop, J. W. C., Seto, J., Hartmann, M. A., Fratzl, P., Observations of Multi-scale, Stress-induced Changes of Collagen Orientation in Tendon by Polarized Raman SpectroscopyBiomacromolecules, 2011, 12, 3989-3996.


  • Ruffoni D., Dunlop J. W. C., Fratzl P., and Weinkamer R., Effect on minimal defects in periodic cellular solids Philosophical Magazine, 2010, 90, 1807-1818.
  • Dunlop, J. W. C., Fischer F. D., Gamsjäger, E,. Fratzl, P., A theoretical model for tissue growth in confined geometriesJ. Mech. Phys. Solids, 2010, 58, 1073-1087
  • Gamsjäger, S., Masic, A., Roschger, P., Kazanci, M., Dunlop, J. W. C., Klaushofer, K., Paschalis, E. P., Fratzl, P., Cortical bone orientation and composition as a function of bone maturation in a mouse animal model obtained by Raman spectroscopy, Bone, 2010, 47, 392-399.
  • Kommareddy, K. P., Lange, C., Rumpler, M., Dunlop, J. W. C., Manjubala, I., Cui, J., Kratz, K., Lendlein, A.,  and Fratzl, P., Two stages in three-dimensional in vitro growth of tissue generated by osteoblast-like cellsBiointerphases, 2010, 5, 45-52.
  • Bilyk, A. Dunlop, J. W., Hall, A. K., Harrowfield, J. M., Wais Hosseini, M., Koutsantonis, G. A., Skelton, B. W., and White, A. H., Systematic Structural Coordination Chemistry of p-tert-Butyltetrathiacalix[4]arene: Main Group Metal Complexes Other Than Those of Group 1European Journal of Inorganic Chemistry, 2010, 14, 2089-2105.
  • Bilyk, A. Dunlop, J. W., Fuller, R. O., Hall, A. K., Harrowfield, J. M., Wais Hosseini, M., Koutsantonis, G. A., Murray, I. W., Skelton, B. W., Stamps, R. L., and White, A. H., Systematic Structural Coordination Chemistry of p-tert-Butyltetrathiacalix[4]arene: Further Complexes of Transition-Metal Ions, European Journal of Inorganic Chemistry, 2010, 14, 2106-2126.
  • Bilyk, A. Dunlop, J. W., Fuller, R. O., Hall, A. K., Harrowfield, J. M., Wais Hosseini, M., Koutsantonis, G. A., Murray, I. W., Skelton, B. W., Sobolev, A. N., Stamps, R. L., and White, A. H., Systematic Structural Coordination Chemistry of p-tert-Butyltetrathiacalix[4]arene: Further Complexes of Lanthanide Metal IonsEuropean Journal of Inorganic Chemistry, 2010, 14, 2127-2152.


  • Dunlop, J. W. C., Hartmann, M. A., Bréchet, Y. J. M., Fratzl, P., Weinkamer, R., Bone remodeling is controlled by an activation barrier, not by a lazy zoneCalcified Tissue International, 2009, 85, 45-54.
  • Muter, D., Jahnert S., Dunlop, J. W. C., Findenegg, G., Paris O., Pore structure and fluid sorption in ordered mesoporous silica II: ModelingJournal of Chemical Physics C., 2009, 113, 15211-15217.
  • Abasolo, W., Eder, M., Yamauchi, K., Obel, N., Reinecke, A., Neumetzler, L., Dunlop, J. W. C., Mouille, G., Pauly, M., Höfte, H., Burgert, I., Pectin may hinder the unfolding of xyloglucan chains during cell deformation – implications of the mechanical performance of Arabidopsis hypocotyls with pectin alterationsMolecular Plant, 2009, 2, p990-999.


  • Rumpler, M., Woesz, A., Dunlop, J. W. C., van Dongen, J. T., Fratzl, P., The effect of geometry on three-dimensional tissue growthJournal of the Royal Society Interface, 2008, 5(27): 1173–1180.
  • Goswami, L., Dunlop, J. W. C., Jungnikl, K, Eder, M., Gierlinger, N., Coutand, C., Jeronimidis, G., Fratzl, P., Burgert, I., Stress generation in tension wood of poplar is based on the lateral swelling power of the G-layer, The Plant Journal, 2008, 2008, 56, 531-538.


  • Dunlop, J., Bréchet, Y., Legras, L., and Estrin, Y., Dislocation density based modelling of plastic deformation of      Zircaloy-4. Materials Science and Engineering A, 443, p77-86, 2007
  • Dunlop, J., Bréchet, Y., Legras, L., and Zurob, H., Modelling isothermal and non-isothermal recrystallisation kinetics. Application to Zircaloy-4. Journal of Nuclear Materials, 2007, 266, 178-186.


  • Zurob, H., Bréchet, Y. and Dunlop, J. Quantitative criterion for nucleation of recrystallisation in solid solutionsActa Materialia, 2006, 54, p. 3983-3990.


  • Asfari, Z., Bilyk, A., Dunlop, J., Hall, A., Harrowfield, J., Wais Hosseini, M., Skelton, B., and White, A., Subtleties with Sulfur: Calixerenes as UranophilesAngewandte Chemie International Edition, 2001, 40, 4, p. 721-723

Papers in Conference Proceedings

  • C.M. Bidan, P. Kollmannsberger, K.P. Kommareddy, M. Rumpler, Y.J.M. Bréchet, P. Fratzl, J.W.C. Dunlop, From cell contractility to curvature-controlled tissue growth10th International Symposium on Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering, Berlin, 2012. (Awarded the Taylor and Francis Prize for Best Presentation on Biomechanics)
  • Dunlop, J. W. C., Gamsjäger, E., Bidan, C., Kommareddy, K. P., Kollmannsberger, P., Rumpler, M., Fischer, F. D., Fratzl, P., The modelling of tissue growth in confined geometries, effect of surface tension19th International Conference on Computer Methods in Mechanics, Warsaw, 2011.
  • Galvis, L., Mehta, M., Mašić, A., Dunlop, J.W.C., Duda, G., and Fratzl, P., Collagen Orientation During Early Stages of Bone Fracture Healing Investigated by Polarized, Raman ImagingXXII International Conference on Raman Spectroscopy, Boston, 2010
  • Dunlop, J. W. C., Bréchet, Y. J. M., Architectured Structural Materials: A Parallel Between Nature and EngineeringMRS Proceedings Spring Meeting, 2009 v1188, 1188-LL09-04.
  • Decreus, B., Zurob H. S., Dunlop, J. and Bréchet Y., Effect of Low-Temperature Recovery Treatments on Subsequent Recrystallisation in Al-2.5%MgMaterials Science Forum, 2007, 550, 381-386.
  • Dunlop, J., Weinkamer, R., Bréchet, Y., and Fratzl, P., The influence of architecture on the deformation localisation of cellular materials, Conference Proceedings of the 18th French Mechanics Society Congress, Grenoble, 1568, 2007.
  • Dunlop, J., Bréchet, Y. and Legras, L., A coupled recovery/recrystallisation model for zirconium alloys. Influence of hydrogenMaterials Science Forum, 2004, 467-470, p. 629-634.
  • Innes, B., Tsuzuki, T., Dawkins, H., Dunlop, J., Trotter, G., Nearn, M., and McCormick, P., Nanotechnology and the Cosmetic ChemistCosmetics, Aerosols and Toiletries in Australia, 2002, 15, p. 21-4.
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