Carbon is a fascinating chemical element with many faces. The diamond modification is the hardest substance available and not electrically conductive. In contrast, graphite is among the softest materials and a good electron conductor. This wide range of possible physicochemical properties has always inspired materials scientists. Since Carbon is also abundantly available, it is very attractive for numerous applications. Especially porous carbons with internal surface areas of more than 1000 m2/g are widely used to achieve a high contact area with the surrounding species. We use modern and sustainable synthesis methods to develop carbon materials with well-defined nanopore structures and tailored surface chemistry for the use in energy and environmental applications. Three topics are in the focus of research.